Age Spots? Sun Spots? Skin Cancer?

Antioxidants Clean Up: Combat Those Free Radicals

If you want to protect your skin, think antioxidants.

Antioxidants have gained a great deal of attention in recent years, for good reason.

They work to combat the free radical cells’ that damage your skin.


Created when oxygen produces by-products during normal cellular metabolism. More accurately, this reactive oxygen steals electrons from proteins, DNA and cell membranes resulting in damaged tissue. If left unchecked, free radicals may cause heart damage, cancer, cataracts, and a weak immune system. Free radicals may be involved with aging of tissue; and coupled with sun damage, could promote skin cancers.

While free radicals are produced by normal human metabolism, they can be increased by smoking, alcohol, exposure to heavy metals, and radiation. Antioxidants counteract this process by binding to the free radicals, transforming them into non-damaging compounds, or repairing cellular damage. It would seem logical, then, to include antioxidants in your daily regime.


Antioxidants are the antidote to free radicals. They can be taken orally or applied directly to the skin.


In order for antioxidants to have any benefit they have to be in sufficient quantities in the tissue. Common antioxidants that are taken orally, or eaten, are Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium and the carotenoids, (deeply or brightly-colored fruits and vegetables are best; i.e.: spinach, carrots, red bell peppers, tomatoes).


Topical antioxidants may reduce UVA damage. UVA is the wavelength that produces visible signs of sun damage and has some carcinogenic effect.

Topical antioxidants that have been studied in creams or ointments are Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Glutathione, Lipoic Acid, Coenzyme Q10, Soy- isoflavanone. It has been shown that a combination of these has additional benefits.

Others such as selenium, zinc and silymarin have not been studied for their effects.


Antioxidants can be divided into those that are fat soluble and those that are water soluble.

Fat soluble is:

Vitamin E, coenzyme Q10 and lipoic acid

Water soluble is:

Glutathione and Vitamin C

Vitamin E:

The antioxidant effect can be more effective if combined with other antioxidants i.e.: coenzyme Q10 and Vitamin C

Is found in fresh vegetables, oils, seeds, nuts, cumin, and soy. Animal studies have shown that Vitamin E protects against UVB damage, although this effect has not been proved in humans. (UVB is much more carcinogenic than UVA, and causes sunburns).

Commonly used to help wound healing. However, studies in human burns did not show Vitamin E helping and about a 1/5 of patients reacted to vitamin E with a contact dermatitis).

Topical Vitamin E is commonly used by pregnant women in the belief that it prevents stretch marks. There is no evidence for this, and sometimes an acute allergic dermatitis is produced causing an inflamed uncomfortable rash.

Coenzyme Q10 (also known as Ubiquinone)

Found in fish and shell fish

It penetrates well into skin, and is claimed to reduce the breakdown of collagen after exposure to UVA light

It may reduce the depth of wrinkles but this has not been confirmed in studies

Lipoic Acid

This is well absorbed into the skin, and converted quickly into dihydrolipoic acid in the cells. It has an anti-inflammatory effect. A three per cent application of Lipoid Acid has been shown to reduce redness in the skin after UVB exposure.


This antioxidant is produced by amino acids, eysteine, glycine and glutamic acid.

Vitamin C

Also known as Ascorbic Acid

Oral Vitamin C improves wound healing and may enhance the immune system

The lack of vitamin C produces scurvy; causing fragile skin and bleeding gums.

Topical Vitamin C

Reduces sun damage, fine wrinkles, and may lighten dark skin pigmentation.

Green Tea (Tea polyphenols)

When used topically as a cream

Has shown to reduce the carcinogenic effect of certain chemicals and ultraviolet rays on the skin of animals. We are still awaiting good evidence for benefit in humans.

Produces anti-inflammatory effects

Reduces the redness caused by UV light.

DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone)

Occurs naturally in our bodies

When taken orally, DHEA is a powerful antioxidant that may have an anti-aging effect and help thicken skin and reduce pigmentation

It is not known if there are any long-term negative effects from oral injection.


When used topically it may increase collagen and decrease redness and damage from ultraviolet rays

For more information about caring for your skin, visit the rest of this site. Also you can read about “where can fillers be used on face” here

The 5 C’s of Credit- What are Lenders Looking for?

When financing small businesses, lenders evaluate the borrower’s ability to repay loans before deciding whether or not to finance them. If you want to increase your chances of securing business funding, you should understand the 5 C’s of credit. Regardless of whether you are borrowing from a bank or individual, prospective lenders evaluate your creditworthiness to avoid the risk of default.

Although guessing might pay off if you are lucky, it is useful to understand the lender’s magic metric. There is a consistent lending framework that lenders use to gauge if the borrowers have the ability to pay back the loan. The framework is called the 5 C’s of credit. It includes character, capital, capacity, collateral, and conditions.

How Lenders use the 5 C’s of Credit

Lenders use the same metric to judge their borrowers, and each component has different measurements across lenders. One lender may focus on the collateral, while the other may focus on the capital. They may ask questions like: Will they pay back? Will the money be used the right way? What is their credit history?

Banks use the 5 C’s of credit when giving business credit. However, the metrics also apply to other types of credit like student loans, car loans, and asset financing. By knowing what lenders want in a client, you will easily get the loan approved.

The following are the 5 C’s of Credit:

1. Capacity

The first “C” represents capacity and it is one of the most important metrics. It measures the borrower’s ability to repay the loan in full and on time. Lenders compare the borrower’s income against the recurring debts. They also assess the borrower’s debt-to-income ratio. The lower the ratio, the more debt you can afford. In the loan application form, you should reveal all revenues, expenses and cash flows.

The lender will also evaluate your past repayment history, both in employment and in business. Previous credit payments are considered as indicators of future loan repayments. You should indicate your repayments in the application form. Lenders want to give money to people who can repay the money plus interest. If they lend money to individuals with a bad credit history, they risk losing their money.

2. Character

The character of a borrower is a subjective judgment that lenders make to determine if the client is trustworthy. Ideally, the lender wants to know if you are a responsible and reliable person. Will you pay? Can a lender trust you to repay the loan in full? What is your history with lenders?

Borrowers with a good character are more likely to repay the loan on time. On the contrary, borrowers who are irresponsible are likely to default payments. Lenders want to avoid giving loans and then spending a lot of time and money to recoup payments. They analyze the borrower’s credit scores, both in business and person. The higher the credit score, the more reliable you are and the higher chances of getting a loan. The credit reports may also reveal your open credit lines, credit utilization and time of repayment.

Apart from the credit history, lenders will also evaluate your character, references, and how you talk to people. As a rule, you should be polite, prompt and organized when talking to your lender. Your behavior might be the deciding factor if you are going to get credit.

3. Capital

securing business credit

Before applying for credit, you should have invested significantly in the business. A lender would prefer lending to borrowers who have invested their money in the business. For example, lenders would find it easier giving you a mortgage if have paid a down payment for the home. A down payment indicates your level of seriousness in the investment. Also, this decreases the borrower’s chances of default.

Capital is a major component of the 5 C’s of credit. It shows your level of dedication in the business. Plus, if you are not investing in your yourself, why should a lender invest in you? A bank measures capital by looking at the value of your investments in the business. The more assets and money you have invested, the less risky it is for a lender to invest in the business.

4. Conditions

Conditions refer to how the borrower plans to use the funds given by a bank. Will the money be used to purchase inventory, vehicle, home or working capital? A lender is likely to approve a loan for a specific purpose than a loan that could be used for anything. You should disclose the intended purpose of the loan in the loan application form. If you fail to indicate the purpose of the loan, the loan processing time may take longer. The bank may also decide to cancel the loan application form.

Also, the lender will consider inflation, industry trends and other factors that could affect your business. These conditions may affect your ability to service the debt. Lenders want to minimize risks by loaning money during Brassica API conditions. While you many not have control over these factors, you should demonstrate that you are in control of the environment.

5. Collateral

A collateral assures the lenders that, if the borrower defaults, the lender can repossess the collateral. The collateral may be an equipment, inventory, a home or other types of collateral accepted by lenders. It may also include a guarantee from a third party. A guarantor assures the bank that, in case you default on the loan, they will pay the lender. Some lenders may require both collateral and guarantee as security for the loan. Lenders determine if the value of the assets corresponds to the amount of the loan.

By asking for collateral, lenders want assurance that they will not lose all their money. If you default on the loan, they can sell the items declared as collateral to recover their cash. Where the lender auctions the main business assets, the business will be at risk of closing down. The fear of losing assets will motivate borrowers to make timely payments to the lender.

The 5 C’s of credit are the magic metrics that lenders use to evaluate the borrower’s ability to repay back the loan. The weighted value of each component varies from one lender to another. Knowing what lenders are looking for will help you craft a better loan application. If you convince the lender why need the loan, it will be easier to secure financing.

UB and Absolute hk prize May File for Bankruptcy in Norway

Author’s Note:  After this article was written, we did confirm that the rumors of an UB/AP Bankruptcy are rumors, not confirmed fact.  Any reference to a UB/AP Bankruptcy in this article are currently in question, pending legal proceedings in the US and Norway.  For more information, you can find a copy of the Blanca Games, Inc. statement for May 5, 2011 here.

The May 5th, 2011 Official Statement for Blanca Games, Inc.:

Absolute Poker and UB to Focus on Non-U.S. Business

St. John’s, Antigua and Barbuda (May 5, 2011) — hk prize Games Inc. (“Blanca”), operator of online poker rooms Absolute Poker and UB, issued the following statement today:

As previously stated, Absolute Poker and UB ceased their U.S.-facing operations due to recent legal developments in the United States. The company is currently restructuring and is focusing its resources on consolidating its non-U.S., rest-of-the-world operation and software business. In order to have a more efficient and successful future business, an immediate need to downsize and streamline operations significantly at both online poker rooms has been required. Absolute Poker and UB continue to operate their non-U.S.-facing business.

This decision comes after considerable review and analysis of the impact that ‘Black Friday’ has had on the business as a whole. The workforce has been liquidated, and the process of rehiring approximately 20% of staff in key positions has commenced. All affected employees have been informed of this necessary restructure.

A company spokesperson said: ”We regret that we have been compelled to take these actions. We have worked tirelessly to create a truly amazing company that is filled with extraordinary people. We have always been and still remain fully committed to our employees and players. At the same time, we are confident that this restructuring will strengthen the company and its future.”

The Company spokesperson also addressed erroneous reports that Blanca has filed for bankruptcy. The apparent confusion over this issue stems from the fact that Blanca recently informed a debt holder, Madeira Fjord, that it was terminating debt payments to, and its relationship with them. As a result, Madeira Fjord apparently filed a notice of bankruptcy in Norway. This notice has no negative impact upon Blanca, the operating company, or its brands. As stated previously, Absolute Poker and UB continue to operate their non-U.S. facing business around the world.

For non-U.S. players, Absolute Poker and UB have increased their maximum withdrawal limits to $1000 for Visa withdrawals and $500 for all other methods. The number of transactions being processed per day has been significantly increased as well. Players are still restricted to one transaction per week, but we are working to return non-U.S. withdrawals to normal service levels as quickly as possible.

As confirmed earlier this week, the company’s legal counsel is in continuing discussions this week with the U.S. Attorney’s office to formalize an agreement that would facilitate the return of funds to U.S. players.

Let’s just say for a moment that you are an online poker player who was in some way affected by the events of Black Friday (and I’m guessing that this is most of you, actually).  You went from enjoying your favorite online games everyday to having the entire thing shut down in a matter of one day, and yet if you played on Pokerstars, the news still isn’t all bad.  Sure, you have no place to play for now, but at least you’re with a site that has been able to process withdrawals by the thousands already.  If you were a Full Tilt Poker user, your site is still in the process of getting funds returned, but it looks likely that your answer is coming soon, and you’ll likely be getting your money back in the near future.  If you played at Ultimate Bet or Absolute Poker, you might be worried if your player funds could be all but a memory now.

Blanca Games, Inc., based out of Norway but employing many in the nation of Costa Rica, was rumored to have filed for bankruptcy in Norwegian courts today, citing the lack of immediate and future cash flow options.  They could be out of money altogether, and your guess is as good as mine as to where it all went, but the reality is that they have laid off almost their entire work force and sent out a statement to shareholders that basically attempts to exonerate them of all future financial obligations.

But, I suppose we should have seen something dramatic coming for this little operation — after all, Poker’s greatest one man hype machine, Phil Hellmuth, cut ties with UB after years of sponsorship there, as did well-respected female pro Annie Duke.  It was assumed in both cases that another sponsorship would come soon, but Hellmuth is still without online sponsorship, and Annie Duke is busy serving as Commissioner of the Federated Poker League.  They moved on, and I guess at this point that is our only option, as well.

If you had funds on this site, it’s too bad on several fronts, and you should not feel as though all sites are this shady when it comes to their financial obligations.  But then again, a case like this one, a case where untold millions of dollars may ultimately (pun intended) vanish into thin air, underscores EVEN MORE our need as players for regulated poker in the United States.  It’s the surest way to guarantee that a shady bankruptcy from a company without integrity can never disrupt the playing futures of this many individuals again.

A Word on Counting Cards

Your average person learned everything they know about togel hongkong hari ini from watching Rain Man. They learned that you can make money at a casino by hitting the blackjack table and counting cards. They learned that you need to be a math wiz or a savant to count cards. And finally, they learned that if you count cards properly you can get rich quick and walk out of the casino overflowing with cash.

Of course, none of that is true. I don’t blame Rain Man. That scene played out like most card-counting scenes in the movies and like most movies, the drama of the scene is more important than realism. Real card counting, however, doesn’t take a genius, but it takes considerably more time to make money. Instead of making millions in one night, it would be more realistic for that to happen in a year or a few years of consistent play.

Before I explain card counting, let me say this: I do not endorse card counting. Though it is not illegal, the casinos don’t appreciate it and if you are caught counting cards you will be asked to leave and may even be banned from that chain of casinos. In the old days of Vegas, worse things happened to you than that. Counting cards isn’t cheating, but it’s still frowned upon by the casinos, who don’t like the advantage it gives players. You should also note that it is not possible to count cards online, due to the random number generator acting as if the deck is shuffled after each card is dealt.

So what is card counting? Card counting, when done, should be done in conjunction with blackjack basic strategy. Where the counting comes in is in determining how many 10-value cards are remaining in the decks. Tens are more advantageous for the players than lower cards because more tens produce more blackjacks (which usually pay out 3:2). Therefore, a deck (or decks) rich in tens is good for the player and one that is low on tens is bad for the player. A card counter will usually bet high when there are a lot of tens in play and bet low when there are not.

That sounds complicated, right? So why don’t you need to be a math genius? For one thing, you’re not really keeping an accurate count of the cards that are played. That would require a math wiz. Instead of keeping track of all of the cards that are played and comparing that to the cards in the deck to determine which cards have not been played, card counters usually use a simple plus/minus system.

Instead of keeping track of every card that is played (2, 3, 4, etc.), card counters only track whether a card was high or low. High cards are tens and low cards are everything else. Though I’m not going to go into detail here about how to count cards, the basics are this: Simple card counting systems use a plus and minus one ratio. In this system, high cards are given a value of -1 and low cards are given a value of +1. As cards are dealt to the players and the dealer, the player adds or subtracts from the count accordingly. When the count gets high, there are a lot of tens left to play and the players will bet higher. When the count is low, they bet lower because there aren’t many tens left.

Sorry if I ruined that iconic scene from Rain Man for you. If it helps, the movie was right about one thing: K-Mart sucks.

Welcome to the Funnel: Proven Tactics to Turn Your Social and Content Marketing up to 11

Raising brand awareness, building trust, establishing credibility, and ultimately driving revenue, that’s what the top of the funnel is all about. It can be a marketer’s “Paradise City”, but without focus, it can quickly become overwhelming. The one-two punch of social media and content marketing is a vital part of any successfully integrated marketing approach. If you are not pairing these two powerhouses together then you are simply missing opportunities to grow your business.

The tactics and strategies in this book have come together through a tremendous amount of research, trial and error, expert input, and real world applications. From startups to enterprise—what’s included here works across the board and can very quickly make an impact.

Just like your favorite double album, this book is separated into four sides, each one addressing a different aspect of Content and Social: For any business translation inquiries, contact Translation Services UK

• Content – Why marketers need to change their mentality from creating more content, to more relevant content and three practical ways to create content that delivers a face-melting return on investment.

• Social – Using social to build awareness, trust and drive high quality leads.

• All Together Now – What the future holds for content and social and what it means for marketers.

• The Credits – The essential resources you need to stay on top of trends in content and social media.

No frills, no fluff, just useful, practical tactics, strategies and lessons from one modern marketer to another, with a touch or rock n roll flare.

Fiction Book Funnels: How to Engage With Your Readers and Sell More Books!

How are YOU engaging with your readers?

Congratulations. You’ve finished your first novel! Go you. Now you’re ready to hit ‘publish’ and wait for the millions to roll in, a al 50 Shades of Grey… What’s that you hear? Crickets? Doh!

Writing your story was the easy part, publishing, launching and getting in front of your raving fans, that’s the part that’s tricky if you’re not sure how to go about it or don’t have a list.

Engaging with your readers takes a bit of finesse, a sprinkle of magic and a lot of know-how and can-do mindset shifting. Figure that stuff out, and you’re singing in the rain…

But How?

Let’s show you by telling… meet Lara. She’s an indie author like yourself, writing for the love of writing, telling her romance and mystery stories and sharing her self-published novels with friends and family in the hopes that they’ll share it with their friends and so on and so on.

Only it’s not really panning out that way for her. For some reason, none of her close friends and family seem at all interested in her books! Lara is at a loss as to why this is, and is super frustrated with thelack of support she’s getting.

How on earth is she going to make her millions with such a lack of interest in her books?!

A Solution

Does this story sound familiar? It sure does to us. Not only are Lise and Liz indie authors who have self-published books themselves, but Lise really struggled with engaging with her readers in the beginning.

Crickets were definitely the norm after publishing a couple of books and she was more than a little miffed when even her own family and friends weren’t clamoring to grab a copy of her hard written stories. How rude, right!

Enter the amazing Liz to the rescue! Not only is Liz a self-published author too, but she is an amazing ‘people connector’ and she know’s a thing or two about engagement. Together, we worked on ways to increase not only engagement with Lise’s current readers, but also in drawing new readers into her ‘book funnel.’

Fiction Book Funnels is all about how to attract raving fans to your books, entice them to grab your book, “bribe” them with an incentive and then ‘get’ them with you’re amazing personality, wordsmithing wizadary and all-round indie author awesomeness. Now try saying that last line three times really fast!

Here’s What’s Inside:

* How to setup a permafree book, including the right strategy for your book business

* How to use Facebook advertising to drive hungry readers to your books

* How to properly engage with your readers with awesome autoresponders, with examples and swipe files!

* Tips on how to set up your author platform and what options are available if you don’t want a website

* Plus much more!

Review of Fundamentals of Poker

There are a lot of people in this world that like to play poker, but don’t really know the ropes. A lot of fun games go on at kitchen tables that don’t look much like what is played in card rooms, and these public games can be extremely intimidating to people thinking about playing in a casino for the first time. Clearly, there is the need for a simple book that bridges the gap, that introduces the basic concepts of poker to a wide audience.

Fundamentals of Poker is a short book that can be easily read by the average reader in less than an hour. It starts with an introduction and a brief history of the game, that for being only two pages long, is fairly thorough. Next, the authors discuss some general guidelines for poker play, including hand rankings, general advice, and common poker etiquette.

The next two sections describe the basics of play of Seven Card Stud and Texas Hold’em, respectively. As these two games are the most commonly played in casinos, they obviously deserve the most attention. While the strategies presented here are extremely simple, they’re about as good as you’re going to get in a maximum of 15 pages in this format.

The book then presents a section on other popular Slot Gacor games, Omaha, Omaha Hi-Lo, Stud 8, Razz, and Lowball. Needless to say, the strategies listed for each game is even more basic. The book also contains a glossary and a recommended reading list extremely heavy on books published by Two Plus Two Publishing.

I have some quibbles about some of the phrasings of explanations and strategies, but these are minor at best. However, I do think the book comes up short on explaining casino decorum. I don’t think ten more pages would have harmed the book any, and extra information on how the house makes its money, how to get on the lists for games, and some more information on how casino games are likely to be different from home games (pace, quality of opposition, etc.) would have been well worth the effort. True, given the variation of procedures in today’s card rooms this isn’t an easy task. Yet, there are enough similarities that such a section could be extremely useful for the novice.

Nonetheless, the book does a very good job of encapsulating the very basics of poker in its small form factor, and I would recommend that just about anyone read it before playing poker in a casino for the first time. However, it’s not quite as much information as I wanted before I made my rookie debut in a card room. There is no real reason for a person who has played poker in a casino before to read this book.


A good book on the basics of the most popular games of poker played in public card rooms today. This book is aimed at the novice poker player, one who has never played in a casino before. However, I found the information on casino procedures to be lacking a little. If you’ve played casino poker already, don’t bother with this book unless you think you’re missing something truly fundamental and you have nobody you feel you can ask.

Diamond Painting

Diamond Painting Questions – Most Common Questions

You have questions about diamond painting and we have answers. Hopefully, yours is covered here. Before you send us an email, read through this FAQ to see if we already discussed and answered your question for you!

Is diamond painting fun?

Oh, yeah, it is so much fun! This is a hobby that is getting really popular lately, and more and more people are discovering it every day. What makes it so fun is how simple it makes art for people who may not be very experienced at creating art on their own. People who haven’t given the hobby a try maybe asking is diamond painting fun, and they are going to be blown away by their experience with it.

Which part of the hobby is the most fun? Some people really enjoy just picking out the painting to do in the first place. Others love applying the diamond drills over time and how relaxing that process is. And there are some who get the most enjoyment out of seeing their finished painting and then displaying it for all to see.

How to use diamond painting pen?

The pen may seem kind of strange to use at first. It’s not like traditional illustration where you switch from one tool to the next to get your lines and colors just the way you want them. It’s a bit more like paint by numbers, where you use the same tool and just apply your colors. In this case, though, the diamond drills are your colors. More about Diamond Painting

You dip the end of the pen into the wax and then pick up the diamond drills, carrying them over to the canvas and placing them in their assigned spots. It’s as simple as that, so even though the process might seem a bit odd and unfamiliar, it is one that you will get used to quickly.

Most pens will pick up one diamond at a time, but some of them are designed to pick up three or fine at once, making the process of adding diamonds to a painting much faster. Only use that kind of pen if you are an expert, though. How to use a diamond painting pen that handles more than one diamond drill at a time? It takes just the right amount of pressure and steady hands. No need to worry about the learning curve; you will get the hang of it in time.

How hard is diamond painting?

This is one of the diamond painting questions we get often, because a lot of people are not sure if they want to try a new hobby like this and may be wondering how much work they have to do to get good at it. The good news is that anyone can pick up diamond painting right away. It’s designed to be simple and accessible. While you may not know exactly what to do when you get your diamond painting in the mail or buy it in a store, the instructions included in the package will explain the process to you.

If you are concerned about how hard diamond painting is, you should start with a small painting. That way, you won’t get overwhelmed at first. It will be manageable for you, and you can complete the canvas before you get frustrated with how long it is taking you.

The process of picking up diamonds and applying them to the canvas will be slow at first, even if you are excited about adding vibrant, shiny colors to the painting. Over time, though, it will become easier and faster, and you will speed through the painting process to make your masterpieces very quickly.

Do diamond painting kits come with extra diamonds?

Most of the time, your kit will come with some extra diamonds. You will have more than you need for a few reasons. The obvious reason is because sometimes the diamonds get lost. They are very small, so it’s easy to lose them if they drop on the floor or fall out of the bags. You might see them roll under a piece of furniture and not feel like chasing them down.

So, a few extras are often provided for your convenience. If you lose a few, it’s no big deal, because you can just grab from the extras.

The other reason that diamond painting kit manufacturers will often include a few extra diamonds is because some people like to change up the colors they use on their paintings. Each canvas has marked spots where the diamonds of each color are supposed to be placed, but if you want to deviate from that and place some different colors in spots that you pick, then you can do that.

Having a few extra diamonds in the bags gives you freedom to express yourself better and make your own unique version of the painting. That way, yours doesn’t look like anyone else’s!


Who Has the Loosest Slots in Vegas?

Who Has the Loosest Slots in Vegas?

I’m proud to feature my list of which casinos in Las Vegas have the loosest reeled slots. The top ten, based on nickel slots are:

Top Ten Casinos

Rank Casino Average


1 Palms 93.42%

2 Gold Coast 92.84%

3 Sahara 92.81%

4 (tie) Bourbon Street 92.63%

4 (tie) Imperial Palace 92.63%

4 (tie) Slots a Fun 92.63%

7 Key Largo 92.6%

8 Western 92.57%

9 Ellis Island 92.56%

10 El Cortez 92.56%

For the entire list please visit my slot machine appendix 3.

How They Work

In my experience slot machines are the most misunderstood form of gambling in the casinos. Not only do most players misunderstand how they work so do the writers of most books on slot machines. Consider yourself lucky to have stumbled upon this page for you are about to learn the secrets behind the reels.

Before I explain how modern slot machines work let me explain how they don’t work. Many books on slot machines incorrectly state that each reel is equally likely to stop on each position, or stop. They reason that if a slot machine has 22 stops on each reel and one jackpot symbol on each reel, then the probability of hitting the jackpot is 1 in 223 = 1/10648. This was true of the early days of slot machines before they become ทางเข้า789bet electronic, and of multi-line machines. However this is not true of single line machines, which most slot machines are. The fact is that on single line machine each stop is electronically weighted and the probability of the reel stopping on each symbol is proportional to its weight.

Following is a detailed explanation of how modern single-line slot machines work.

Player initiates a new play by inserting a coin, pulling the handle, or hitting the ‘spin’ button.

The machine selects three random numbers. These are chosen from a random number generator that is constantly drawing random numbers at a rate of thousands per second. The numbers chosen at the moment the play is initiated are the ones used to determine the final outcome. In other words the outcome is predestined the moment you spin the reels.

The raw three random numbers chosen from the previous step will usually be very large, very small is also a possibility. These numbers will be converted to a desired range, for example integers from 0 to 63. An easy way this can be done is to divide the large number by the desired number and taking the remainder.

The small random numbers will go through a mapping table to be assigned a specific reel to stop on. Each possible random number on each reel is mapped to a specific stop. Generally the higher paying symbols are mapped to fewer numbers.

Almost instantly after the player presses spin the machine has determined where the reels are going to stop. It then lets them spin a few seconds for entertainment value and then will exactly where programmed to.

Multi-line slots, both with physical as well as video display reels do not have weighted reels. Otherwise the process is the same as above. In video display slots representations of actual reels are used, which can be quite large, 60 symbols or more.

In an effort to illustrate how reels are weighted I played a Double Strike slot machine in Reno almost 4000 times and recorded the outcome of every spin. For all the details on that visit my slot machine appendix 5.

Variable State Slots

Some of the video display slot machines have a feature in which a bonus rises the more the player plays it. When the reels stop in a particular configuration the player wins the coins in the meter. These kinds of slots have variable states. In other words the higher the state the greater the expected payback. Examples of this kind of machine include Piggy Bank, Car Race, Temperature Rising, and Double Diamond Mine.

It is possible to have a positive expected value playing slots if you only play variable state slots in very high states. Sometimes casual players will walk away from a machine in a high state. However this secret is long since out and competition for these games can be severe, fistfights have been known to occur over them.

Slot Payback

Based on my own research among 62 Las Vegas casinos here are the rates of return for video display slot machines according to coinage.

Slot Machine Payback

Coinage Average


5 cents 91.17%

10 cents 91.64%

25 cents 92.15%

50 cents 93.00%

1 dollar 93.72%

Returns can vary substantially from casino to casino. This is just a generalization, and there are many exceptions, but as a rule of thumb the nicer the casino the tighter the slots are.


Below are some of the biggest myths about slot machines.

Slot machines stop on any possible set of stops with equal probability

As explained above this is not true of modern single line slot machines. Some stops are much more likely than others.

Slot machines are programmed to go through a cycle of payoffs. Although the cycle can span thousands of spins once it reaches the end the outcomes will repeat themselves in exactly the same order as the last cycle.

This is not true at all. Every trial is random and independent of all past trials.

Slot machines are programmed to pay off a particular percentage of money bet. Thus after a jackpot is hit the machine will tighten up to get back in balance, and when a jackpot has not been hit for a long time it is overdue and more likely to hit.

The only part of this that is true is that they are designed to pay off a particular percentage. However the laws of probability dictate that the longer the machine is played the closer it will come to its target payoff, even with every trial being completely random. A jackpot is equally as likely to be hit on every spin, regardless of past outcomes.

Hot/cold coins are more likely to yield good returns.

The temperature of the coin does not matter. It also does not matter how long it has been since the coin was last played.

Machines pay more if a player card is not used.

The mechanism that determines the outcome of each play does not consider whether a card is used or not.

If I use a slot card the casino will report my winnings to the IRS.

The use of a slot card will not change your tax liability. If you win $1200 or more in a single spin (including the original wager) then the casino will report the win whether a slot card is used or not. Any smaller win will not be reported whether or not a slot card is used. The casino does not add up the smaller wins and report them to the IRS. Aside from the big wins, the player is on the honor system to report a net win over the entire year.

Other Tips

Here are some other miscellaneous tips to help you cut down the house edge.

Most machines reward you for playing the maximum coins. For example the jackpot may pay 2000 coins with 2 coins played, but 4000 with 3 coins played. Many other gambling writers advise the player to always play the maximum coins. However if the max coin incentive is small I believe it is better to play one coin at a higher coinage than max coins at a lower coinage. This is because casinos generally increase the return percentage as the coinage goes up.

Never leave or play a machine that owes you money. Sometimes a machine will run out of money before it is finished paying you off. If you get up someone else can sit at your machine and claim they hit your jackpot. If you put another coin you may lose the evidence so don’t touch anything until you are paid off.

Look for certain banks of machines that are certified to a certain percentage. Some casinos will have banks of dollar machines that are certified at 97% payback or so. Be careful to believe claims such as “our slots return 97%.” This likely refers to just certain machines, so look for those specifically under a sign indicating their payback percentage.

If you like to hop from machine to machine then don’t forget your coin cup. I once lost a cup with about $40 in quarters at Caesars Palace and I’m still mad at myself for it.

Check the slot card reader from time to time. Sometimes contact will be lost for no apparent reason and you won’t get credit for any play until you reinsert it.

There Is No Easy Way

There are lots of people selling the “secrets” of winning at slots and promise easy winnings to the buyer. Don’t waste your money. There are only two ways to beat the slots without cheating: (1) Play variable state slots (as explained above) in high states and (2) play progressive slots when the meter is unusually high. Based on what I have seen those authors promising easy money at the slot machines are not exploring these methods but instead rambling on with a mixture of correct and incorrect information, neither of which will give the player an edge. Here are is just some example The Casino Slot Machine Player Gambler’s Program

I know this cliche is old and tired but it is still right, “If it sounds too good to be true it probably is.”

Roobet Crash

Florida Cruise Ship Faces Illegal Betting Suit

The trial began Wednesday in the state’s civil case against the former owners of the Palm Beach Princess cruise ship, alleging that they allowed illegal sports betting in their casino. Gambling is not legal until cruise ships enter international waters, which begin three miles from shore. Assistant Attorney General Stephen LeClair says the Palm Beach Princess, which is owned by Leo Equity Group and Deerbrooke Investments, engaged in bookmaking before the ship ever set sail. Before the ship hit international waters, passengers were able to file papers with the casino outlining the sporting events they wanted to bet on and how much they wanted to wager. Alan Rose, the attorney for the ship’s former owner, expressed that before the ship hit international waters, passengers were allowed to submit only betting slips on sporting events about to begin. The trial, which is expected to last a week, is before Palm Beach County Circuit Judge Jorge Labarga.

Mississippi Casinos’ Holiday Giveaways

Holiday gifts are in the mix for casinogoers who use their players’ club cards when playing slots and table games at Mississippi casinos during December. Players who accumulate the needed points in the required time can receive gifts as wine Roobet Crash charms, cookie jars, Christmas bears and cuddly critters. For earning 400 points during the month, Treasure Bay Casino in Biloxi offers a wine charm – small charms to place on the stem of a wine glass. For 600 points, players at Beau Rivage receive a snowman cookie jar; and in Vicksburg, the Isle of Capri Casino is giving away Christmas Beanie Bears to 200-point earners.

Two Hit Quartermania Jackpot

The new Quartermania progressive jackpot slot games hit twice in Nevada casinos on Sunday, paying the lucky winners over $200,000. The slot games are developed by International Gaming Technologies (IGT). According to IGT’s vice president of MegaJackpots John Sears, “These new Quartermania games are hotter than Hades, which is, well, appropriate since one of them is called Diablo Diamonds.” The first jackpot was hit Sunday morning at the Las Vegas Flamingo by Tracy Gray of North Carolina – a $226,000 Instant Winner MegaJackpots award. Then, just before midnight, James McKee of Ohio won more than $201,000 while playing Quartermania at the Stardust. The newly-revised Quartermania theme features two 3-coin, 3-line spinning reel slot games. One is Triple Texas Tea, which is based on the wildly-popular video slot, and the other is Diablo Diamond, a new spin on the classic Double-Diamond theme. Both games feature bonus rounds where the action moves to the three bonus reels where Texas Ted or Diablo announce the mounting grand total win. Quartermania also offers a “MiniMania” award that starts at $2,000.

Translation Agency UK

Certified Translation at Translation Agency UK

Your questions answered…

What is a certified translation?

How can a translation be certified?

Basic certified translation service

Certified translation service by sworn translator

Certified translation service by affidavit

Certified translation service by apostille.

Translation Agency UK’s certified translation service.

What is a certified translation?

A certified translation is a translation that has been formally verified for use in official purposes. Documents that require certified translation services might include papers that have to be submitted to an Immigration or Naturalisation department (such as birth, marriage and divorce certificates), official transcripts (such as high school certificates, university degrees and vocational training certificates), regulatory documents (such as informed consents, protocols, research data forms and case report forms), patents and many others.

How can a translation be certified?

A translation can be certified in many different ways. The service depends on the nature of the document and its usage. It is important always to check with your legal representative which of the following certifications is most relevant for your purposes.

Basic certified translation service

This is a translation to which the translator or the agency has added a statement, attesting that the target-language text is an accurate and complete translation of the source-language text.

Certified translation service by sworn translator

A certified or sworn translator is a professional who has been duly authorised by the government of the country in question to translate and notarise a document. Any certified translation produced by a sworn translator is an official document in its own right. The translation is certified with a stamped declaration which is written in the relevant language, as well as in English.

Certified translation service by affidavit

For legal proceedings such as divorces, the Translation Agency UK courts may require the translation to be certified by affidavit. This is a declaration which is made by the translator in writing and on oath before an authorised person (such as a notary public or a solicitor ) that the translation is, to the best of their knowledge, complete and accurate.

Certified translation service by apostille.

This is a certification under which a government department, usually the State Department, Justice Ministry or Foreign Ministry, authenticates a document as genuine. Once a document has been apostilled, it is automatically deemed legalised for use in another country.

Translation Agency UK’s certified translation service.

Translation Agency UK’s certified translation service provides all of the above for each set of languages. Our translators are qualified and experienced. They ensure that your documents are translated and certified accurately for acceptance by any court or government agency in the United Kingdom or abroad.


Send us your documents today, they would be ready for collection in the next few days.


Our certified translation service is carried out by sworn translators and legal representatives whose credentials have been thoroughly checked.


Our certified translation service produces results that match your original document not only in terms of language, but also in presentation and layout.

Style and expression

Our certified translation service provides output that is always in tune with the tone of your material. Formal writing remains formal.


Our certified translation service is available for 12 hours a day every day of the week – including Saturday and Sunday – via email correspondence. And these hours can be extended if prior arrangements are made. We always remember that you are the client and we are always willing to accommodate your needs.


We know that these days everyone is working to tight budgets. We discuss all the costs and expenses of our certified translation services up front, and inform clients immediately if any changes need to be made.

Absolute confidentiality

We respect your privacy. We guarantee that all documents entrusted to us remain strictly confidential

This is what others have had to say about our certified translation services :

“Translation Agency UK’s consultants are one phone call away, they are instantly available, easily answer all of your questions, they are wonderfully encouraging, and most importantly they do respect your privacy.”

Paul Mayer, Leeds

“Now that my case has been settled, I just want to let you know how much I appreciate the great effort you and your professional staff expended on my behalf. The translation was on target and met the exact requirements of the Home Office. I can now start a new career in Canada. Thank you so much. “

Victoria Sage, London